Photoelectron spectroscopy of silver and palladium cluster anions. Electron delocalization versus, localization
Photoelectrons (PE) from jet-cooled mass-identified silver and palladium cluster anions (number of atoms, n⩽ 21) were detached by UV laser light and energy-analysed in a time-of-flight (TOF) electron spectrometer of the magnetic-bottle type. For palladium PE threshold energies smoothly increase with n; for Ag, they show clear evidence of shell effects as well as an ‘even–odd oscillation’. The PE energy spectra are strongly structured, the structures being attributed to transitions involving the neutral ground states as well as contributions of low-lying excited neutral states. For silver the results can, in part, be qualitatively understood in terms of a delocalized electron Fermi-gas within the ellipsoidal deformed cluster. This picture fails for the more localized d electrons of palladium. For a thorough interpretation more elaborate calculations are necessary. The first results are available for alkali-metal clusters and will be compared to the silver and copper data.