Surface spectroscopy and electrochemical characterisation of metal dithizonates covalently attached to gold by a self-assembled cysteamine monolayer

(Note: The full text of this document is currently only available in the PDF Version )

Fakhradin Mirkhalaf and David J. Schiffrin


Secondary metal complexes of a CO2H derivative of dithizone (DDz) have been synthesised and covalently attached to the amino group of a self-assembled monolayer of cysteamine chemisorbed on gold surfaces and characterised by cyclic voltammetry, surface Raman and insitu FTIR spectroscopies. In contrast with other metal ions, the copper secondary complex of DDz showed strong Raman signals due to resonance Raman enhancement. It has been shown that Cu–DDz complexes are formed by reaction of Cu2+ with DDz gold derivatised surfaces.


References

  1. (a) Molecular design of electrode surfaces, ed. R. W. Murray, vol. XXII of Techniques of Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1992 Search PubMed; (b) C. J. Zhong and M. D. Porter, Anal. Chem. A, 1995, 709 Search PubMed; (c) A. Kumar, N. L. Abbott, E. Kim, H. A. Biebuyck and G. M. Whitesides, Acc. Chem. Res., 1995, 28, 219 CrossRef CAS; (d) C. M. Elliott and R. W. Murray, Anal. Chem., 1976, 48, 1247 CrossRef CAS; (e) R. W. Murray, Acc. Chem. Res., 1980, 13, 135 CrossRef CAS.
  2. (a) R. F. Lane and A. T. Hubbard, J. Phys. Chem., 1973, 77, 1401 CrossRef CAS; (b) T. T.-T. Li and M. J. Weaver, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1984, 106, 6107 CrossRef CAS; (c) J.-J. Xu, H.-Q. Fang and H.-Y. Chen, J. Electroanal. Chem., 1997, 426, 139 CrossRef CAS; (d) P. R. Moses, L. Wier and R. W. Murray, Anal. Chem., 1975, 47, 1882 CrossRef CAS; (e) K. Araki, L. Angnes, C. M. N. Azevedo and H. E. Toma, J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995, 397, 205 CrossRef CAS.
  3. (a) J. E. Pemberton, Electrochemical interfaces, ed. H. D. Abruna, VCH, Weinheim, 1991 Search PubMed; (b) A. Ulman, FTIR Spectroscopy in Colloid and Interface Science, American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 1991 Search PubMed; (c) A. M. Bradshaw and E. Schweizer, in Spectroscopy of Surfaces, ed. R. J. H. Clark and R. E. Hester, Adv. Spectrosc., 1988, 16 Search PubMed.
  4. F. Mirkhalaf, D. Whittaker and D. J. Schiffrin, J. Electroanal. Chem., in press Search PubMed.
  5. E. B. Sandell, Colorimetric Determination of Traces of Metals, Interscience Pub., New York, 1964, p. 139 Search PubMed.
  6. D. Michalska and A. T. Kowal, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A, 1985, 41, 1119 CrossRef.
  7. S. N. Port, S. L. Horswell, R. Raval and D. J. Schiffrin, Langmuir, 1996, 12, 5934 CrossRef CAS.
  8. J. E. Pemberton and R. P. Buck, J. Phys. Chem., 1983, 87, 3336 CrossRef CAS.
  9. J. E. Pemberton and R. P. Buck, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1982, 104, 4076 CrossRef CAS.
  10. J. E. Pemberton and R. P. Buck, J. Phys. Chem., 1981, 85, 248 CrossRef CAS.
  11. D. Fak-Michalska and A. T. Kowal, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem., 1981, 43, 1411 CAS.
  12. (a) E. Katz, T. Lötzbeyer, D. D. Schlereth, W. Schuhmann and H.-L. Schmidt, J. Electroanal. Chem., 1994, 373, 189 CrossRef CAS; (b) E. Katz, D. D. Schlereth and H.-L. Schmidt, J. Electroanal. Chem., 1994, 367, 59 CrossRef CAS; (c) A. A. Solov'ev, E. Katz, V. A. Shuvalov and Y. E. Erokhin, Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg., 1991, 26, 29 CrossRef CAS; (d) E. Katz, J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990, 291, 257 CrossRef.
  13. C. A. Goss, D. H. Charych and M. Majda, Anal. Chem., 1991, 63, 85 CrossRef CAS.
  14. K. Ashley and S. Pons, Chem. Rev., 1988, 88, 673 CrossRef CAS.
  15. W. S. V. Kwan, L. Atanasoska and L. L. Miller, Langmuir, 1991, 7, 1419 CrossRef.
  16. (a) G. W. Cline and S. B. Hanna, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1987, 109, 3087 CrossRef CAS; (b) M. I. Papisov, A. V. Maksimenko and V. P. Torchilin, Enzyme Microb. Technol., 1985, 7, 11 CrossRef CAS; (c) D. C. Neckers, J. Chem. Educ., 1975, 52, 695 CAS.
  17. J. R. Lenhard and R. W. Murray, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1978, 100, 7870 CrossRef CAS.
  18. L. Tomcsanyi, Anal. Chim. Acta, 1974, 70, 411 CrossRef CAS.
  19. H. M. Irving, A. M. Kiwan, D. C. Pupainwar and S. S. Sahota, Anal. Chim. Acta, 1971, 56, 205 CrossRef CAS.
  20. B. S. Freiser and H. Freiser, Anal. Chem., 1970, 42, 305 CrossRef CAS.
  21. P. Brand and H. Freiser, Anal. Chem., 1974, 46, 1147 CrossRef CAS.
  22. H. M. Irving and A. M. Kiwan, Anal. Chim. Acta, 1971, 56, 435 CrossRef CAS.
  23. I. Dyfverman, Acta Chim. Scand., 1963, 17, 1609.
  24. G. Schwarzenbach, Complexometric Titrations, Chapman and Hall, London, 1957, p. 8 Search PubMed.
  25. A. Fabreti and G. Peyronel, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem., 1975, 37, 603 CrossRef.
  26. M. M. Harding, J. Chem. Soc., 1958, 4136 RSC.
  27. B. Chase and B. Parkinson, J. Phys. Chem., 1991, 95, 7810 CrossRef CAS.
  28. A. C. Albrecht and M. C. Hutley, J. Chem. Phys., 1971, 55, 4438 CAS.
  29. S. Koide, Y. Udagawa, N. Mikami, K. Kaya and M. Ito, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 1972, 45, 3542 CAS.
  30. L. S. Meriwether, E. C. Breitner and C. L. Sloan, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1965, 87, 4441 CrossRef CAS.