Jump to main content
Jump to site search
SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE Close the message box

Maintenance work is planned for Monday 16 August 2021 from 07:00 to 23:59 (BST).

Website performance may be temporarily affected and you may not be able to access some PDFs or images. If this does happen, refreshing your web browser should resolve the issue. We apologise for any inconvenience this might cause and thank you for your patience.

Issue 5, 2018

Delayed death following paraquat poisoning: three case reports and a literature review

Author affiliations


Paraquat (PQ) poisoning is principally reported in developing countries. However, most fatalities occur elsewhere due to the induction of multi-organ failure. PQ poisoning can hardly be managed by clinical practice, and no specific antidote has come into existence yet. Here three cases, including 17-, 20-, and 23-year-old men, who were poisoned with PQ, have been reported. Furthermore, the literature regarding biological mechanisms, clinical manifestation, and treatment of PQ-induced toxicity was reviewed. Patients who, either intentionally or accidentally, ingested PQ earlier were initially found to be stable at the emergency department (ED). Therefore, they were discharged from the hospital under a follow-up. However, after several days, the patients were referred to the hospital for the second time and despite cardiovascular resuscitation (CPR) efforts, they suddenly expired. The delayed death following exposure to PQ was reported for inducing gradual progressive pulmonary fibrosis, metabolic acidosis, neurotoxicity, renal failure, and liver injury in poisoned patients. Therefore, PQ-intoxicated patients should be supervised for up to several weeks, and kept in the hospital for a longer period of time. Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings are beneficial markers that act as useful predictors of PQ poisoning.

Graphical abstract: Delayed death following paraquat poisoning: three case reports and a literature review

Article information

24 Apr 2018
12 Jun 2018
First published
12 Jun 2018

Toxicol. Res., 2018,7, 745-753
Article type
Review Article

Search articles by author