N-Doping improves charge transport and morphology in the organic non-fullerene acceptor O-IDTBR†
Molecular doping has been shown to improve the performance of various organic (opto)electronic devices. When compared to p-doped systems, research into n-doped organic small-molecules is relatively limited, primarily due to the lack of suitable dopants and the often encountered unfavourable microstructural effects. These factors have prevented the use of n-doping in a wider range of existing materials, such as non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs), that have already shown great promise for a range of (opto)electronic applications. Here, we show that several different molecular n-dopants, namely [1,2-b:2′,1′-d]benzo[i][2.5]benzodiazocine potassium triflate adduct (DMBI-BDZC), tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (TBAF) and 4-(2,3-dihydro-1,3-dimethyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylbenzenamine (N-DMBI), can be used to n-dope the molecular semiconductor O-IDTBR, a promising NFA, and increase the electron field-effect mobility to >1 cm2 V−1 s−1. By combining complementary experimental techniques with computer simulations of doping and charge carrier dynamics, we show that improved charge transport arises from synergistic effects of n-type doping and morphological changes. Specifically, a new, previously unreported dopant-induced packing orientation results in one of the highest electron mobility values reported to-date for an NFA molecule. Overall, this work highlights the importance of dopant–semiconductor interactions and their impact on morphology, showing that dopant-induced molecular packing motifs may be generic and a key element of the charge transport enhancement observed in doped organics.