n-Type organic light-emitting transistors with high mobility and improved air stability†
n-Channel organic light-emitting field-effect transistors (OLETs) based on perylene diimide (PDI-C13) with improved air stability were fabricated using a short channel length and thermal annealing. Both shortening of channel length and thermal annealing improved source–drain current; thermal annealing facilitated charge injection and improved PLQY of the PDI-C13 film. The light-emitting mechanism of OLETs was elaborated: that is, the OLETs were lateral organic light-emitting diodes in nature, the gate voltage (VGS) modulated light intensity by controlling electron density, and the light intensity was a quadratic function of VGS. This is the first example of n-channel OLETs that can operate in air.