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Issue 32, 2015
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Non-laminated growth of chlorine-doped zinc oxide films by atomic layer deposition at low temperatures

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Abstract

Chlorine doping in a ZnO matrix to a concentration of 0.65 ± 0.05 at% was accomplished via atomic layer deposition using a home-made chlorine source at a low deposition temperature of 140 °C. Structural and morphological properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The introduction of chlorine into the ZnO matrix resulted in significant grain growth reorientation due to chlorine doping in the oxygen sites of ZnO. Cl ions preferentially occupied the substitutional O ion site and O vacancies, and the preferential growth in the {100} planes changed to growth in the {002} planes along the longitudinal direction of the hexagonal wurtzite structure as a function of the Cl doping levels. This important phenomenon was explained by a passivation effect, resulting from the chlorine doping mechanism; this was elucidated using transmission electron microscopy. The optical transmittances of the undoped ZnO and ZnO:Cl films were approximately the same (88%), but the optical band gap was increased by the introduction of a Cl dopant in ZnO due to the Burstein–Moss effect. The lowest resistivity of ZnO:Cl was 1.215 × 10−2 Ω cm, and the corresponding carrier concentration and mobility were 5.715 × 1019 cm−3 and 31.81 cm2 V−1 s−1, respectively. Finally, the calculated doping efficiency of chlorine in ZnO was 10.8%, which was higher than that of aluminum-doped ZnO, even though the deposition temperature was very low when applied to plastic substrates due to the non-laminated growth of ZnO:Cl films.

Graphical abstract: Non-laminated growth of chlorine-doped zinc oxide films by atomic layer deposition at low temperatures

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Publication details

The article was received on 15 Jun 2015, accepted on 07 Jul 2015 and first published on 07 Jul 2015


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C5TC01763G
J. Mater. Chem. C, 2015,3, 8336-8343

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    Non-laminated growth of chlorine-doped zinc oxide films by atomic layer deposition at low temperatures

    Y. Choi, K. Kang, H. Lee and H. Park, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2015, 3, 8336
    DOI: 10.1039/C5TC01763G

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