Progress in internal/external stimuli responsive fluorescent carbon nanoparticles for theranostic and sensing applications
In the past decade, fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (FNPs) prepared from natural resources and biomaterials have been attractive due to their various properties, such as unique optical properties, great biocompatibility, water dispersion, and facile surface functionalization. Depending on the properties of the carbon sources and the subsequent carbonization processes, internal/external stimuli responsive carbon nanoparticles have been generated that are useful for theranostic and sensing applications. In this review, we highlight the recent developments in the use of FNPs in nanomedicine in great detail, particularly for FNPs responding to internal stimuli, including redox, pH, and enzymes, and external stimuli, including temperature, light, and magnetic fields, for drug delivery and sensing applications. Furthermore, we hope to provide insight that could stimulate further research aiming for unparalleled useful applications. As a result, there are many possibilities that can be explored from this smart material.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Review Articles