Inflammatory activation of human serum albumin- or ovalbumin-modified chitosan particles to macrophages and their immune response in human whole blood†
Nanomaterials have been extensively used in the biomedical field. These nanoscale objects may either promote or restrain immune responses depending on their surface characteristics and compositions. In this study, chitosan (CS) particles prepared using an emulsion-crosslinking method were modified with different amounts of human serum albumin (HSA) and ovalbumin (OVA), resulting in four types of modified CS particles, i.e. CS@HSA-10, CS@HSA-57, CS@OVA-13 and CS@OVA-65, respectively. They had a similar size of about 150 nm in a dry state, and were swollen 2–3 fold in PBS. No significant cytotoxicity was determined toward in vitro cultured RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells. However, all the modified CS particles, in particular the OVA-modified ones (CS@OVA-13 and CS@OVA-65), induced significantly higher secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) compared with the negative control. In human whole blood, CS@OVA-13 and CS@OVA-65 were phagocytosed with a significantly higher ratio by granulocytes and monocytes, leading to the higher secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8, and a larger extent of platelet activation than CS@HSA-10 and CS@HSA-57, respectively.