A novel zwitterionic bioceramic with dual antibacterial capability†
A novel zwitterionic SBA-15 type bioceramic with dual antibacterial capability has been synthesized. The co-condensation route has been employed to functionalize SBA-15 with primary and secondary amine groups. The resulting material exhibits textural and nanostructural properties comparable to those of pure silica SBA-15, as confirmed by XRD, HR-TEM and N2 adsorption porosimetry. The presence of –NH3⊕/–SiO⊖ and >NH2⊕/–SiO⊖zwitterionic pairs on the material surface is evidenced by FTIR and 1H → 13C CP/MAS solid state NMR. The homogeneous distribution of this zwitterionic pairs agrees with the results derived from STEM-EDS studies. ζ-Potential measurements indicate that the zwitterionic nature of this material is preserved at the physiological pH of 7.4. In vitro bacterial assays using S. aureus demonstrate that the zwitterionic material is capable of inhibiting 99.9% of the bacterial adhesion compared to pure silica SBA-15. Moreover, cephalexin loading and delivery assays indicate that the zwitterionic sample is capable of releasing antibiotic molecules over long time periods. This dual antibacterial capability, i.e. antibiofouling and bactericidal, opens up promising expectations for the treatment of bone implant infections.