Poly(methyl methacrylate) based bone cement and its nanocomposites with layered double hydroxide (LDH) have been developed with greater mechanical strength and biocompatibility as a grouting material for total joint arthroplasty. Bivalent magnesium has been replaced with trivalent aluminium with various mole ratios, keeping the layered pattern of the LDH intact, to cater for the effect of varying substitution on the property enhancement of the nanocomposites. The intercalation of polymer inside the LDH layers makes them disordered and mechanically stiffer and tougher by more than 100%. The thermal stability of bone cement has increased by more than 30 °C in the presence of 1 wt% of nanoLDH, homogenously distributed in the bone cement matrix by creating an inorganic thermal barrier out of the LDH dispersion. The improvement in the properties of the nanocomposites has been explained in terms of the strong interaction between nanoLDH and polymer. The superior bioactivity and biocompatibility of the nanocomposites, as compared to pure bone cement, has been established through hemolysis assay, cell adhesion, MTT assay and cell proliferation using fluorescence imaging. The developed nanocomposites have been used as a grouting material and significant improvements have been achieved in fatigue behaviour with gradual increment of Al substitution in the Mg : Al mole ratio in nanoLDH, demonstrating the real use of the material in the biomedical area. In vivo experiments on rabbits clearly revealed the superior efficacy of bone cement nanocomposites, over pure bone cement and a blank.
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