Fatigue resistant lead-free multilayer ceramic capacitors with ultrahigh energy density†
The critical role of electrical homogeneity in optimising electric-field breakdown strength (BDS) and energy storage in high energy density (0.7 − x)BiFeO3–0.3BaTiO3–xBi(Li0.5Nb0.5)O3 (BF–BT–xBLN) lead-free capacitors is demonstrated. The high BDS for bulk ceramics and multilayers (dielectric layer thickness ∼ 8 μm) of ∼260 and ∼950 kV cm−1, respectively, gives rise to record-performance of recoverable energy density, Wrec = 13.8 J cm−3 and efficiency, η = 81%. Under an electric field of 400 kV cm−1, multilayers are temperature stable up to 100 °C, frequency independent in the range 10−2 to 102 Hz, have low strain (<0.03%) and are fatigue-resistant up to 104 cycles (Wrec variation < 10%). These properties show promise for practical use in pulsed power systems.
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