Enhancing the output performance of hybrid nanogenerators based on Al-doped BaTiO3 composite films: a self-powered utility system for portable electronics
Enhancing the output performance of nanogenerators using composite films consisting of a piezoelectric material embedded into polymers has gained much attention over the last few years. Such composite films can provide a high surface charge density and dielectric permittivity, which can further efficiently enhance the performance of nanogenerators. We, for the first time, employed aluminum (Al)-doped barium titanate (BaTiO3; ABTO) particles to enhance the performance of nanogenerators. These ABTO particles were synthesized via a solid-state technique, and the effect of Al dopant concentration on their crystallinity and ferroelectric properties was systematically investigated. However, the BTO particles with 2% Al dopant concentration exhibited a high remnant polarization and piezoelectric coefficient, and they were further employed to efficiently enhance the output performance of the hybrid piezo/triboelectric nanogenerators. For this, these ABTO particles were first mixed with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to prepare a composite film. Next, the ABTO/PDMS composite film was employed as a piezoelectric material and triboelectric material of the hybrid nanogenerator (HNG) and exhibited a high output performance owing to their synergetic effects. In addition, the influence of the surface roughness of the composite film on the performance of the HNG was also investigated and optimized. Consequently, the HNG device with the rough surface ABTO/PDMS composite film exhibited maximal open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and power density values of ∼945 V, ∼59.8 μA, and ∼42.4 W m−2, respectively. For practical device application, the stable and high electrical power generated from the HNG device was employed to light several light-emitting diodes and power portable electronic devices.