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Issue 19, 2016

Facile strategy for controllable synthesis of stable mesoporous black TiO2 hollow spheres with efficient solar-driven photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

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Abstract

Hydrogenated black TiO2 has been proven to tune the bandgap and utilize solar energy effectively. Herein, we report a facile strategy for controllably synthesizing stable mesoporous black TiO2 hollow spheres (MBTHSs) with a narrow bandgap via a template-free solvothermal approach combined with a small amine molecule reflux-encircling process and subsequent high-temperature hydrogenation, which are composed of highly crystalline pore-walls, Ti3+ in frameworks and surface disorders. The encircled protectors especially ethylenediamine result in high thermostability of the TiO2 hollow structures, which not only facilitate hydrogenation (600 °C), but also inhibit grain growth and anatase-to-rutile phase transformation as well as retain a high structural integrity. The MBTHSs with a diameter of ∼700 nm possess a relatively high surface area of ∼80 m2 g−1, large pore size and pore volume of ∼12 nm and ∼0.20 cm3 g−1, respectively. The diameters and wall thicknesses are controllable from ∼500 nm to 1 μm and ∼35 to 115 nm, respectively. The high crystallinity, integrated hollow structure, Ti3+ in frameworks and surface disorders of the MBTHSs give rise to an extending photoresponse from the ultraviolet to the visible light region and significant improvement in the solar-driven photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate (241 μmol h−1 0.1 g−1), which is two times as high as that of black TiO2 nanoparticles (118 μmol h−1 0.1 g−1) and almost three times that of pristine mesoporous TiO2 hollow spheres (81 μmol h−1 0.1 g−1), respectively.

Graphical abstract: Facile strategy for controllable synthesis of stable mesoporous black TiO2 hollow spheres with efficient solar-driven photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
07 Mar 2016
Accepted
04 Apr 2016
First published
27 Apr 2016

J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016,4, 7495-7502
Article type
Paper

Facile strategy for controllable synthesis of stable mesoporous black TiO2 hollow spheres with efficient solar-driven photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

W. Hu, W. Zhou, K. Zhang, X. Zhang, L. Wang, B. Jiang, G. Tian, D. Zhao and H. Fu, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016, 4, 7495 DOI: 10.1039/C6TA01928E

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