Roll to roll compatible fabrication of inverted organic solar cells with a self-organized charge selective cathode interfacial layer†
We successfully demonstrate a simple approach to printing efficient, inverted organic solar cells (OSCs) with a self-organized charge selective cathode interface layer based on the small-molecule Phen-NaDPO. Different from previous studies, Phen-NaDPO molecules were blended into a polymer/fullerene blend, comprising a low bandgap diketopyrrolopyrrole–quinquethiophene alternating copolymer pDPP5T-2 and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM), and processed by doctor blading in air. We observed a spontaneous, surface energy driven migration of Phen-NaDPO towards the ZnO interface and a subsequent formation of electron selective and barrier free extraction contacts. In the presence of 0.5 wt% Phen-NaDPO, a PCE of 5.4% was achieved for the inverted device based on an ITO/ZnO cathode. Notably, the photovoltaic performances remained at the same level with increasing the Phen-NaDPO concentration in the active layer from 0.25 to 1 wt%. Furthermore, this approach could be proven to effectively work with other cathodes such as bare ITO and ITO/AZO. The self-organization of Phen-NaDPO through spontaneous vertical phase separation is mainly attributed to its high surface energy and strong interaction with the cathode material. The present results highlight that a self-organized cathode interfacial material processed from a “ternary” active layer is fully compatible with the requirements for roll-to-roll fabrication of inverted organic solar cells.
- This article is part of the themed collection: 2016 Journal of Materials Chemistry A HOT Papers