A facile synthesis of a uniform constitution of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous TiO2–carbon nanocomposites with hierarchical pores for lithium ion batteries†
In this work, we report the synthesis of several TiO2–carbon nanocomposites (TCNs) composed of a homogeneous dispersion of carbon and anatase TiO2 nanocrystals (30.2–68.7 wt%) in a three-dimensionally ordered macroporous framework with a pore-hierarchical structure fabricated by means of a simple multicomponent infiltration of three-dimensionally ordered templates. Galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques are employed to assess the properties of these nanocomposites for use in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). These results demonstrate that TiO2 can be effectively utilized with the assistance of the carbon in the electrode. The TCN3 (55.4 wt% of TiO2) is found to be the most efficient one with a high capacity of ∼549 mA h g−1 at 0.2 C after 100 cycles. In addition, it exhibits good cycling stability and superior rate capability as an anode material in LIBs. The reversible capacity can still be retained at ∼132 mA h g−1 at a high rate of 10 C. Such TCN represents a promising exploring direction for enhancing the device performance of metal oxide-based electrodes in LIBs.