Thermal shape fluctuations of a two-dimensional compressible droplet
Analysis of thermal capillary waves on the surface of a liquid usually assumes incompressibility of the bulk fluid. However, for droplets or bubbles with submicronic size, or for epithelial cells whose out-of-plane elongation can be modeled by an effective 2D bulk modulus, compressibility of the internal fluid must be taken into account for the characterization of their shape fluctuations. We present a theoretical analysis of the fluctuations of a two-dimensional compressible droplet. Analytical expressions for area, perimeter and energy fluctuations are derived and compared with Cellular Potts Model (CPM) simulations. This comparison shows a very good agreement between theory and simulations, and offers a precise calibration method for CPM simulations.