Simulation of dense non-Brownian suspensions with the lattice Boltzmann method: shear jammed and fragile states†
Dense non-Brownian suspensions, including both hydrodynamic interactions and frictional contacts between particles, are numerically studied under simple and oscillatory shears in terms of the lattice Boltzmann method. We successfully reproduce the discontinuous shear thickening (DST) under a simple shear for bulk three-dimensional systems. For our simulation of an oscillatory shear in a quasi-two-dimensional system, we measure the mechanical response after the reduction of the strain amplitude from the initial oscillations. Here, we find the existence of a shear-jammed state under this protocol in which the storage modulus G′ is only finite for high initial strain amplitude γI0. We also find the existence of a fragile state in which both fluid-like and solid-like responses can be detected for an identical area fraction and an initial strain amplitude γI0 depending on the initial phase Θ (or the asymmetricity of the applied strain) of the oscillatory shear. We also observe a DST-like behavior under the oscillatory shear in the fragile state. Moreover, we find that the stress anisotropy becomes large in the fragile state. Finally, we confirm that a stress formula based on the angular distribution of the contact force recovers the contact contributions to the stress tensors for both simple and oscillatory shears with large strains.