Optical second harmonic generation in a ferromagnetic liquid crystal
A comparative experimental investigation of the dependence of second harmonic generation (SHG) on an applied external voltage between a standard nematic liquid crystalline material and an analogue ferromagnetic nematic liquid crystalline material was performed by using a fundamental optical beam at an 800 nm wavelength. For the ferromagnetic material, the dependence of SHG on an applied magnetic field was also examined. Three different polarization combinations of the fundamental and the second harmonic radiation were analysed. The SHG signal observed in the former material is attributed to a combination of electric field-induced SHG (EFISHG) and flexoelectric deformation-induced SHG, while the SHG signal observed in the latter material is attributed solely to flexoelectric deformation-induced SHG. The obtained dependences of the SHG signal on the associated optical retardation show that, in the most favourable polarization combination, the two contributions generate about the same effective nonlinear optical susceptibility.