Surfactant controlled zwitterionic cellulose nanofibril dispersions
Zwitterionic cellulose nanofibrils (ZCNFs) with an isoelectric point of 3.4 were obtained by grafting glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride onto TEMPO/NaBr/NaOCl-oxidised cellulose nanofibrils. The ZCNF aqueous dispersions were characterized via transmission electron microscopy, rheology and small angle neutron scattering, revealing a fibril-bundle structure with pronounced aggregation at pH 7. Surfactants were successfully employed to tune the stability of the ZCNF dispersions. Upon addition of the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate, the ZCNF dispersion shows individualized fibrils due to electrostatic stabilization. In contrast, upon addition of the cationic species dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide, the dispersion undergoes charge neutralization, leading to more pronounced flocculation.