Formal [4 + 4]-, [4 + 3]-, and [4 + 2]-cycloaddition reactions of donor–acceptor cyclobutenes, cyclopropenes and siloxyalkynes induced by Brønsted acid catalysis†
Brønsted acid catalyzed formal [4 + 4]-, [4 + 3]-, and [4 + 2]-cycloadditions of donor–acceptor cyclobutenes, cyclopropenes, and siloxyalkynes with benzopyrylium ions are reported. [4 + 2]-cyclization/deMayo-type ring-extension cascade processes produce highly functionalized benzocyclooctatrienes, benzocycloheptatrienes, and 2-naphthols in good to excellent yields and selectivities. Moreover, the optical purity of reactant donor–acceptor cyclobutenes is fully retained during the cascade. The 1,3-dicarbonyl product framework of the reaction products provides opportunities for salen-type ligand syntheses and the construction of fused pyrazoles and isoxazoles that reveal a novel rotamer-diastereoisomerism.