The double life of conductive nanopipette: a nanopore and an electrochemical nanosensor
The continuing interest in nanoscale research has spurred the development of nanosensors for liquid phase measurements. These include nanopore-based sensors typically employed for detecting nanoscale objects, such as nanoparticles, vesicles and biomolecules, and electrochemical nanosensors suitable for identification and quantitative analysis of redox active molecules. In this Perspective, we discuss conductive nanopipettes (CNP) that can combine the advantages of single entity sensitivity of nanopore detection with high selectivity and capacity for quantitative analysis offered by electrochemical sensors. Additionally, the small physical size and needle-like shape of a CNP enables its use as a tip in the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM), thus, facilitating precise positioning and localized measurements in biological systems.