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Issue 29, 2019

A general concept for the introduction of hydroxamic acids into polymers

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Hydroxamic acids (HA) form stable complexes with a large variety of metal-ions, affording hydroxamates with high complexation constants. Hydroxamic acid moieties play a crucial role in the natural iron metabolism. In this work, 1,4,2-dioxazoles linked to a hydroxyl group are introduced as key compounds for the installation of hydroxamic acids at synthetic polymers in well-defined positions. A general synthetic scheme is developed that gives access to a series of novel functional key building blocks that can be universally used to obtain hydroxamic acid-based monomers and polymers, for instance as protected HA-functional initiators or for the synthesis of a variety of novel HA-based monomers, such as epoxides or methacrylates. To demonstrate the excellent stability of the dioxazole-protected hydroxamic acids, direct incorporation of the dioxazole-protected hydroxamic acids into polyethers is demonstrated via oxyanionic polymerization. Convenient subsequent deprotection is feasible under mild acidic conditions. α-Functional HA-polyethers, i.e. poly ethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol and polyglycerol based on ethylene oxide, propylene oxide and ethoxy ethyl glycidyl ether, respectively are prepared with low dispersities (<1.2) in the molecular weight range of 1000 to 8500 g mol−1. Water-soluble hydroxamic acid functional poly(ethylene glycol) (HA-PEG) is explored for a variety of biomedical applications and surface coating. Complexation of Fe(III) ions, coating of various metal surfaces, enabling e.g., solubilization of FeOx nanoparticles by HA-PEGs, are presented. No impact of the polyether chain on the chelation properties was observed, while significantly lower anti-proliferative effects were observed than for deferoxamine. HA-PEGs show the same complexation behavior as their low molecular weight counterparts. Hydroxamic acid functional polymers are proposed as an oxidatively stable alternative to the highly established catechol-based systems.

Graphical abstract: A general concept for the introduction of hydroxamic acids into polymers

Supplementary files

Article information

26 May 2019
04 Jun 2019
First published
17 Jun 2019

This article is Open Access
All publication charges for this article have been paid for by the Royal Society of Chemistry

Chem. Sci., 2019,10, 7009-7022
Article type
Edge Article

A general concept for the introduction of hydroxamic acids into polymers

T. Johann, J. Keth, M. Bros and H. Frey, Chem. Sci., 2019, 10, 7009 DOI: 10.1039/C9SC02557J

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