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Issue 4, 2018
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Designing interactions by control of protein–ligand complex conformation: tuning arginine–arene interaction geometry for enhanced electrostatic protein–ligand interactions

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Abstract

We investigated galectin-3 binding to 3-benzamido-2-O-sulfo-galactoside and -thiodigalactoside ligands using a combination of site-specific mutagenesis, X-ray crystallography, computational approaches, and binding thermodynamics measurements. The results reveal a conformational variability in a surface-exposed arginine (R144) side chain in response to different aromatic C3-substituents of bound galactoside-based ligands. Fluorinated C3-benzamido substituents induced a shift in the side-chain conformation of R144 to allow for an entropically favored electrostatic interaction between its guanidine group and the 2-O-sulfate of the ligand. By contrast, binding of ligands with non-fluorinated substituents did not trigger a conformational change of R144. Hence, a sulfate–arginine electrostatic interaction can be tuned by the choice of ligand C3-benzamido structures to favor specific interaction modes and geometries. These results have important general implications for ligand design, as the proper choice of arginine–aromatic interacting partners opens up for ligand-controlled protein conformation that in turn may be systematically exploited in ligand design.

Graphical abstract: Designing interactions by control of protein–ligand complex conformation: tuning arginine–arene interaction geometry for enhanced electrostatic protein–ligand interactions

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Article information


Submitted
02 Nov 2017
Accepted
01 Dec 2017
First published
04 Dec 2017

This article is Open Access
All publication charges for this article have been paid for by the Royal Society of Chemistry

Chem. Sci., 2018,9, 1014-1021
Article type
Edge Article

Designing interactions by control of protein–ligand complex conformation: tuning arginine–arene interaction geometry for enhanced electrostatic protein–ligand interactions

A.-L. Noresson, O. Aurelius, C. T. Öberg, O. Engström, A. P. Sundin, M. Håkansson, O. Stenström, M. Akke, D. T. Logan, H. Leffler and U. J. Nilsson, Chem. Sci., 2018, 9, 1014
DOI: 10.1039/C7SC04749E

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