Ternary DNA computing using 3 × 3 multiplication matrices†
Non-Boolean computations implementing operations on multi-valued variables beyond base 2 allow enhanced computational complexity. We introduce DNA as a functional material for ternary computing, and in particular demonstrate the use of three-valued oligonucleotide inputs to construct a 3 × 3 multiplication table. The system consists of two three-valued inputs of −1; 0; +1 and a fluorophore/quencher functional hairpin acting as computational and reporter module. The interaction of the computational hairpin module with the different values of the inputs yields a 3 × 3 multiplication matrix consisting of nine nanostructures that are read out by three distinct fluorescence intensities. By combining three different hairpin computational modules, each modified with a different fluorophore/quencher pair, and using different sets of inputs, the parallel operation of three multiplication tables is demonstrated.