Surface alloying of FeCoCrNiMn particles on Inconel-718 using plasma-transferred arc technique: microstructure and wear characteristics
Inconel-718 (IN-718) is a commonly used nickel-based superalloy in various fields, such as gas turbine and power generation applications. However, the lower wear and oxidation resistance hinder their wide usage. In this work, FeCoCrNiMn particles were mechanically ball-milled and preplaced on the IN-718 substrate. Then, the preplaced FeCoCrNiMn particles were scanned by heat source using plasma-transferred arc (PTA) technique. The effect of PTA alloying on the phase changes, microstructure, nanohardness and wear resistance has been investigated. The result showed that the PTA region contained different phases, such as FCC, BCC and intermetallic. No cracks were observed in the PTA alloyed region. Moreover, the porous free structure was viewed in the alloyed region, which revealed that the PTA alloying process was effectively used to perform the alloying process. More hard phases, such as NiFe, CoMn, Cr9Mn25Ni21, MnNi, FeCo, FeMn and MnCo, were formed on the PTA-alloyed region. The obtained wear rate of the substrate specimen at 30 N applied load is 2.45 × 10−3 mm3 m−1 and 1.79 × 10−3 mm3 m−1 for the PTA specimen. Similarly, the wear rate of the substrate specimen at 50 N is 5.38 × 10−3 mm3 m−1 and for the PTA sample, it is 2.29 × 10−3 mm3 m−1. The PTA specimen showed lower CoF than the substrate specimen due to increased surface hardness and minimum deformation of asperities. The primary wear type was mildly abrasive, accompanied by slight oxidative wear. Oxygen reacted with the surface alloying elements and formed different oxides, such as CoO, Cr2O3, MnO2, Mn2O3, Mn3O4, FeO and Fe2O3. These dense oxidation films covered the working surface and enhanced the wear resistance. The worn-out PTA surface showed that the wear scar depths were shallow and lower than the substrate, and reduced the roughness.