An enzyme free simultaneous detection of γ-amino-butyric acid and testosterone based on copper oxide nanoparticles†
Herein, an easy wet-chemical process was used in basic medium with low temperature to prepare low-dimensional copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs). A variety of optical and structural techniques such as UV-visible, FT-IR, XRD, FESEM, XEDS, and XPS were used to characterize the synthesized CuO NPs in detail. Two sensitive and selective sensor probes for γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) and testosterone (TST) were achieved after modification; a thin layer of NPs on a flat glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Sensor analytical parameters such as sensitivity (SNT), linear dynamic range (LDR), limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), robustness, and interference effects, were evaluated for the proposed sensor (GCE/CuO NPs) for GABA and TST, based on a dependable current–voltage technique. Calibration curves were found to be linear (R2 = 0.9963 and 0.9095) over a broad concentration range of GABA and TST (100.0 pM to 100.0 mM and 10.0 pM to 10.0 mM, respectively). Sensor parameters – SNT (316.46 and 2848.10 pA μM−1 cm−2), LDR (100.0 nM to 10.0 mM and 10.0 pM to 1.0 mM), LOD (≈11.70 and 96.67 pM), and LOQ (39.0 and 322.2 pM) – for GABA and TST were calculated from the calibration plot successively. Preparation of CuO NPs using the wet-chemical technique is a good approach for perspective expansion of NPs-based sensors for the enzyme-free detection of biomolecules. Our sensor probe (GCE/CuO NPs) is applied for the cautious recognition of GABA and TST in real biological samples –human, mouse, and rabbit serum – and achieved good and acceptable results.