Retracted Article: The synthesis and biological activity of marine alkaloid derivatives and analogues
The ocean is the origin of life, with a unique ecological environment, which has given birth to a wealth of marine organisms. The ocean is an important source of biological resources and tens of thousands of monomeric compounds have been separated from marine organisms using modern separation technology. Most of these monomeric compounds have some kind of biological activity that has attracted extensive attention from researchers. Marine alkaloids are a kind of compound that can be separated from marine organisms. They have complex and special chemical structures, but at the same time, they can show diversity in biological activities. The biological activities of marine alkaloids mainly manifest in the form of anti-tumor, anti-fungus, anti-viral, anti-malaria, and anti-osteoporosis properties. Many marine alkaloids have good medicinal prospects and can possibly be used as anti-tumor, anti-viral, and anti-fungal clinical drugs or as lead compounds. The limited amounts of marine alkaloids that can be obtained by separation, coupled with the high cytotoxicity and low selectivity of these lead compounds, has restricted the clinical research and industrial development of marine alkaloids. Marine alkaloid derivatives and analogues have been obtained via rational drug design and chemical synthesis, to make up for the shortcomings of marine alkaloids; this has become an urgent subject for research and development. This work systematically reviews the recent developments relating to marine alkaloid derivatives and analogues in the field of medical chemistry over the last 10 years (2010–2019). We divide marine alkaloid derivatives and analogues into five types from the point-of-view of biological activity and elaborated on these activities. We also briefly discuss the optimization process, chemical synthesis, biological activity evaluation, and structure–activity relationship (SAR) of each of these compounds. The abundant SAR data provides reasonable approaches for the design and development of new biologically active marine alkaloid derivatives and analogues.