Amino-modified kraft lignin microspheres as a support for enzyme immobilization†
In this research, it has been demonstrated that amino-modified microspheres (A-LMS) based on bio-waste derived material, such as kraft lignin, have good prospects in usage as a support for enzyme immobilization, since active biocatalyst systems were prepared by immobilizing β-galactosidase from A. oryzae and laccase from M. thermophila expressed in A. oryzae (Novozym® 51003) onto A-LMS. Two types of A-LMS were investigated, with different emulsifier concentrations (5 wt% and 10 wt%), and microspheres produced using 5 wt% of emulsifier (A-LMS_5) showed adequate pore shape, size and distribution for enzyme attachment. The type of interactions formed between enzymes (β-galactosidase and laccase) and A-LMS_5 microspheres demonstrated that β-galactosidase is predominantly attached via electrostatic interactions while attachment of laccase is equally governed by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, the A-LMS_5-β-galactosidase exhibited specificity towards recognized prebiotics (galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)) synthesis with 1.5-times higher GOS production than glucose production, while for environmental pollutant lindane degradation, the immobilized laccase preparation exhibited high activity with a minimum remaining lindane concentration of 22.4% after 6 days. Thus, this novel enzyme immobilization support A-LMS_5 has potential for use in green biotechnologies.