The influence of the interfacial layer on the stability of all-solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes†
Improving the stability of large-area organic light-emitting diodes is very important for practical applications. The interfacial layer plays a crucial role to improve the electron injection characteristic. In this work, devices prepared by various solution-processed interfacial materials and thermal-evaporated CsF were compared. In the devices with active area of 2.25 mm × 2.25 mm, we found that the performance and lifetime of the device with solution-processed Liq interfacial layer was comparable with the device with thermal-evaporated CsF. However, for the devices with active area of 2.4 cm × 3.7 cm, the device based on thermal-evaporated CsF was the champion in both performance and lifetime. The influence of the thickness of CsF on the stability was investigated. The most stable blue fluorescent devices can be achieved when the thickness of CsF is about 0.1 nm, while the most stable green phosphorescent devices can be obtained by depositing 0.2 nm CsF. The best current efficiency for the blue fluorescent device is 4 cd A−1, while the best one for the green phosphorescent device is 22 cd A−1. Furthermore, burning points causing the failure of the devices were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, thermography and secondary ion mass spectrometry. We demonstrated that burning points are defects, which can be observed after long-time operation, showing higher local temperature and fragmentary electrode.