Microwave irradiation: a green approach for the synthesis of functionalized N-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridines†
An eco-friendly and cost-effective, microwave-assisted green approach has been developed for the synthesis of diverse functionalized N-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridines (1,4-DHPs). This pseudo three-component reaction was carried out between two equivalents of (E)-N-methyl-1-(methylthio)-2-nitroethenamine (NMSM) and one equivalent of aromatic aldehydes under microwave irradiation at 100 °C without catalyst and solvent. Short reaction times, avoidance of toxic solvents or expensive, metallic and corrosive catalysts and no need for column chromatographic purification are among the valuable features of the presented method. Moreover, the “greenness” of the method was evaluated within the ambits of the defined green metrics such as atom economy, carbon efficiency, E-factor, reaction mass efficiency, overall efficiency, process mass intensity and solvent intensity and the method exhibited a good to excellent score.