Fabrication of a blood compatible composite membrane from chitosan nanoparticles, ethyl cellulose and bacterial cellulose sulfate
A heparin-like composite membrane was fabricated through electrospinning chitosan nanoparticles (CN) together with an ethylcellulose (EC) ethanol solution onto a bacterial cellulose sulfate membrane (BCS). Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that there were no chitosan particles in the obtained composite CN-EC/BCS membranes (CEB), indicating CN had been stretched to nanofibers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy verified the existence of –NH2 from chitosan and –SO3− from BCS on the surface of CEB membranes. Positively charged CN in the electrospinning solution and negatively charged BCS on the collector increased the electrostatic force and the electrospinning ability of the EC was increased. The membrane was hydrophobic, with a water contact angle higher than 120°. CEB membranes expressed good blood compatibility according to the results of coagulation time and platelet adhesion experiments. No platelets adhered on the surface of the CEB membranes. An inflammatory response was investigated according to activation of the macrophages seeded onto the membranes. Macrophages seeded on CEB membranes are not activated after 24 h incubation.