Experimental study on the durability of the polydopamine functionalized gas–liquid–solid microreactor for nitrobenzene hydrogenation
As a promising technique for multiphase catalytic reactions, the widespread applications of gas–liquid–solid microreactors are still limited by poor durability. Hence, in this work, a method for the preparation of Pd nanocatalysts inside a gas–liquid–solid microreactor was proposed to realize long-term durability using electroless deposition on the polydopamine functionalized surface followed by hydrogen reduction. This method not only increases the utilization efficiency of the Pd ions but also improves the durability of the microreactor. The chemical composition and topography characterization of the fabricated catalyst layer were tested using XPS and FESEM, respectively. The results indicated that the incorporation of hydrogen reduction resulted in nearly all palladium ions being reduced and the palladium nanoparticles were dispersed uniformly on the polydopamine modified surface. The microreactor prepared by this method exhibited high durability and high nitrobenzene conversion as compared to the traditional electroless catalyst deposition. Besides, it was shown that the increased inlet nitrobenzene concentration and flow rates played a negative role in the durability. The longer microreactor exhibited a better durability.