Multiferroic PVDF–Fe3O4 hybrid films with reduced graphene oxide and ZnO nanofillers
Flexible and self-standing polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films loaded with nanofillers, reduced graphene oxide (RGO), zinc oxide (ZnO) and magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles, were prepared by a solvent casting method. The crystallinity, morphology and structure of these films were studied using XRD, SEM, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. FTIR studies reveal a higher percentage of polar ferroelectric β-phase (∼80%) in both pristine PVDF and PVDF–RGO films, whereas the addition of nanofillers, Fe3O4 and ZnO, resulted in a reduced amount of β-phase (∼50%) in the films. Of all the films studied, PVDF–RGO shows an enhanced dielectric constant as well as maximum electric polarization. On the other hand, Fe3O4 loaded–PVDF composite films exhibit reduced values of both dielectric constant and electric polarization. A weak magneto-dielectric behavior is observed in Fe3O4 loaded PVDF nanocomposite films at room temperature with a coupling constant ∼0.04%.