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Issue 96, 2014
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Recent mechanistic developments and next generation catalysts for the Sonogashira coupling reaction

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Abstract

The Pd-catalyzed Sonogashira reaction is a powerful method for the formation of Csp2–Csp bonds and has found application in a wide variety of areas including medicinal chemistry, agrochemistry, materials and electronics. Development of competent catalysts for the Sonogashira reaction is a particular scientific challenge since it is traditionally a di-metallic-mediated homogeneous catalytic process including some major drawbacks. This review provides a concise overview of the mechanistic aspects of the Cu co-catalyzed, Cu-free and Au-catalyzed Sonogashira coupling processes. More recent developments and next generation catalysts for the Sonogashira reaction are also presented. These include non transition-metal catalysts, metal free couplings and photo-induced protocols. Finally, the application of metal nanoparticles in Sonogashira reactions is presented. These include Pd nanoparticles, Pd bi- and tri-metallic nanoparticles, magnetically separable Pd/Fe3O4 nanoparticles, Ru nanoparticles and Au nanoparticles.

Graphical abstract: Recent mechanistic developments and next generation catalysts for the Sonogashira coupling reaction

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Article information


Submitted
22 Aug 2014
Accepted
07 Oct 2014
First published
07 Oct 2014

RSC Adv., 2014,4, 53442-53466
Article type
Review Article

Recent mechanistic developments and next generation catalysts for the Sonogashira coupling reaction

M. Karak, L. C. A. Barbosa and G. C. Hargaden, RSC Adv., 2014, 4, 53442
DOI: 10.1039/C4RA09105A

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