An inorganic–organic nanocomposite calixquinone (C4Q)/CMK-3 as a cathode material for high-capacity sodium batteries
Based on the concept of grid-scale energy storage systems (ESSs), organic sodium-ion batteries (OSIBs), combining the merits of SIBs and the advantages of organic materials, are promising candidates for the new stage of commercial batteries. Organic cathode materials of calixquinone (C4Q) in LIBs have delivered a high initial discharge capacity of 422 mA h g−1. However, its sodium storage property remains unclear. Here, a series of C4Q/ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) nanocomposites have been firstly prepared by simple perfusion methods and employed as cathode materials for rechargeable sodium batteries. Systematic characterization including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis has been carried out, which demonstrated that C4Q was almost completely infused in the nano-pores of CMK-3 when its content was lower than 66 wt%. The optimized nanocomposite with 33 wt% C4Q exhibits a superior initial discharge capacity up to 438 mA h g−1 at 0.1C rate and a capacity retention of 219.2 mA h g−1 after 50 cycles. The enhanced cycling stability and high-rate capability are attributed to the nanosize effect and the good conduction of CMK-3. This constrains the dissolution of the embedded active materials. Our results enrich the family of inorganic–organic nanoconfinement cathode materials for high capacity sodium batteries.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Inorganic Chemistry Frontiers HOT articles for 2017