Light induced cytotoxicity of nitrofurantoin toward murine melanoma
The cytotoxicity of nitrofurantoin (NFT) in the dark and after light exposure (UVA irradiation, λ = 385 nm) was evaluated in murine melanoma B16F10 cells. NFT induces both cell proliferation and inhibition of cell viability. The dominance of one or the other effect depends on the drug concentration, incubation time (tinc) and irradiation dose. The uptake of NFT in these cells, as well as its photocytotoxicity, reaches saturation after 24 hours of incubation. The mechanism of cell death in the dark is associated with the enzymatic release of nitric oxide (NO). The increase of NFT cytotoxicity under light irradiation is associated with the increase of NO concentration due to photorelease. NO photorelease by NFT in solution was confirmed by chemiluminescence, while NO formation in cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy using DAF-2DA, a specific indicator of NO in living cells. The NFT does not enter nuclei, distributing preferentially in the cell cytoplasm, as shown by fluorescence microscopy.