Analysis of redox states of protic and aprotic solutions irradiated by low linear energy transfer carbon-ion beams using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical
The quantitative evaluation of changes in the redox state induced by low linear energy transfer (LET) radiations such as the plateau region of heavy-ion beams via formation of reactive oxygen species is of considerable importance to eliminate the adverse effects of radiation therapy on normal tissues adjacent to a tumour. In this study, a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH˙) was used as a redox probe to estimate the redox states of protic and aprotic solutions irradiated by low LET carbon-ion (C-ion) beams. The dose dependence of the decrease in the absorption band due to DPPH˙ (which was solubilised by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in water) after irradiation with low LET C-ion beams (13 keV μm−1) was similar to that after X-irradiation. Similar results were obtained when H2O was replaced with methanol or acetonitrile although the slope values of the plots of the absorbance changes vs. radiation doses were twice larger as compared to the case in β-CD-containing H2O. Moreover, DPPH˙ was more susceptible to the C-ion beam than to X-rays in isopropyl myristate (IPM), which is one of the saturated fatty acid esters.