Dicyanobenzene and dicyanopyrazine derived X-shaped charge-transfer chromophores: comparative and structure–property relationship study†
A series of novel X-shaped push–pull compounds based on benzene-1,2-dicarbonitrile has been designed, synthesized and further investigated by X-ray analysis, electrochemistry, absorption and emission spectra, SHG experiment and quantum-chemical calculations. The obtained data were compared with those for isolobal 5,6-disubstituted pyrazine-2,3-dicarbonitriles. Structure–property relationships were elucidated. The extension, composition and planarization of the π-linker used as well as the electron-withdrawing ability of both dicyano-substituted acceptor units affect the linear and nonlinear properties of the target charge-transfer chromophores most significantly.