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Issue 32, 2020
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Nitric oxide-dependent biodegradation of graphene oxide reduces inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract

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Abstract

Understanding the biological fate of graphene-based materials such as graphene oxide (GO) is crucial to assess adverse effects following intentional or inadvertent exposure. Here we provide first evidence of biodegradation of GO in the gastrointestinal tract using zebrafish as a model. Raman mapping was deployed to assess biodegradation. The degradation was blocked upon knockdown of nos2a encoding the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) or by pharmacological inhibition of NOS using L-NAME, demonstrating that the process was nitric oxide (NO)-dependent. NO-dependent degradation of GO was further confirmed in vitro by combining a superoxide-generating system, xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO), with an NO donor (PAPA NONOate), or by simultaneously producing superoxide and NO by decomposition of SIN-1. Finally, by using the transgenic strain Tg(mpx:eGFP) to visualize the movement of neutrophils, we could show that inhibition of the degradation of GO resulted in increased neutrophil infiltration into the gastrointestinal tract, indicative of inflammation.

Graphical abstract: Nitric oxide-dependent biodegradation of graphene oxide reduces inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
11 May 2020
Accepted
07 Aug 2020
First published
10 Aug 2020

This article is Open Access

Nanoscale, 2020,12, 16730-16737
Article type
Communication

Nitric oxide-dependent biodegradation of graphene oxide reduces inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract

G. Peng, M. F. Montenegro, C. N. M. Ntola, S. Vranic, K. Kostarelos, C. Vogt, M. S. Toprak, T. Duan, K. Leifer, L. Bräutigam, J. O. Lundberg and B. Fadeel, Nanoscale, 2020, 12, 16730
DOI: 10.1039/D0NR03675G

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