Jump to main content
Jump to site search
SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE Close the message box

Maintenance work is planned for Monday 16 August 2021 from 07:00 to 23:59 (BST).

Website performance may be temporarily affected and you may not be able to access some PDFs or images. If this does happen, refreshing your web browser should resolve the issue. We apologise for any inconvenience this might cause and thank you for your patience.


Issue 18, 2020

Surface characterization of nanoscale co-crystals enabled through tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy

Author affiliations

Abstract

Atomic Force Microscopy coupled with Tip Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (AFM-TERS) was applied to obtain information about the structure and surface composition of single nano co-crystals. For this purpose, a co-crystalline system consisting of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo-[5.5.0.03,11.05,9]-dodecane (CL-20) and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) in a molar ratio of 2 : 1 (CL-20/HMX) was chosen. CL-20/HMX nano-plates were prepared by spray flash evaporation. To ensure co-crystallinity and nanostructures, powder X-ray diffraction and AFM investigations were performed. The results demonstrate that coherence lengths and particle dimensions are on a similar level though coherence lengths appear shorter than measured particle dimensions. According to this fact, defects inside the nano co-crystals are minimized. The co-crystallinity was additionally proven by confocal Raman spectroscopy. Here, marker bands for pristine CL-20 and HMX were chosen which appear in the CL-20/HMX spectrum in an intensity ratio of ∼2.5 : 1 (CL-20 : HMX). Afterwards surface investigations of single CL-20/HMX nano-plates were performed by AFM-TERS. Due to the surface sensitivity of TERS, these experiments reveal that the ratio of the Raman intensities between CL-20 and HMX inverts at CL-20/HMX nano-plate surfaces. Therefore, it is concluded that nano co-crystal surfaces consist of molecular layers of HMX. A theoretical approximation of the normal coordinates of the investigated marker vibrations supports this conclusion since it can exclude the occurrence of the intensity ratio inversion because of the given orientation between CL-20/HMX nano-plates and the Raman scattering system. Based on this finding, an impact ignition mechanism is proposed, enabling explanation of the close impact sensitivity values of β-HMX and CL-20/HMX.

Graphical abstract: Surface characterization of nanoscale co-crystals enabled through tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy

Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
14 Jan 2020
Accepted
12 Mar 2020
First published
13 Mar 2020

Nanoscale, 2020,12, 10306-10319
Article type
Paper

Surface characterization of nanoscale co-crystals enabled through tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy

J. Hübner, T. Deckert-Gaudig, J. Glorian, V. Deckert and D. Spitzer, Nanoscale, 2020, 12, 10306 DOI: 10.1039/D0NR00397B

To request permission to reproduce material from this article, please go to the Copyright Clearance Center request page.

If you are an author contributing to an RSC publication, you do not need to request permission provided correct acknowledgement is given.

If you are the author of this article, you do not need to request permission to reproduce figures and diagrams provided correct acknowledgement is given. If you want to reproduce the whole article in a third-party publication (excluding your thesis/dissertation for which permission is not required) please go to the Copyright Clearance Center request page.

Read more about how to correctly acknowledge RSC content.


Social activity

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements