Towards fast-charging technologies in Li+/Na+ storage: from the perspectives of pseudocapacitive materials and non-aqueous hybrid capacitors
Since the discovery of the pseudocapacitive behavior in RuO2 by Sergio Trasatti and Giovanni Buzzanca in 1971, materials with pseudocapacitance have been regarded as promising candidates for high-power energy storage. Pseudocapacitance-involving energy storage is predominantly based on faradaic redox reactions, but at the same time the charge storage is not limited by solid-state ion diffusion. Besides the search for pseudocapacitive materials, their implementation into non-aqueous hybrid capacitors stands for the strategy to increase power density by a rational design of the battery structure. Composed of a battery-type anode and a capacitor-type cathode, such devices show great promise to integrate the merits of both batteries and capacitors. Today, the availability of fast-charging technologies is of fundamental importance for establishing electric vehicles on a mass scale. Therefore, from the perspective of materials and battery design, understanding the basics and the recent developments of pseudocapacitive materials and non-aqueous hybrid capacitors is of great importance. With this goal in mind, we introduce here the fundamentals of pseudocapacitance and non-aqueous hybrid capacitors. In addition, we provide an overview of the latest developments in this fast growing research field.