Unraveling template-free fabrication of carbon nitride nanorods codoped with Pt and Pd for efficient electrochemical and photoelectrochemical carbon monoxide oxidation at room temperature†
The tailored synthesis of carbon nitrides (CNs) is of particular interest in multidisciplinary catalytic applications. However, their fabrication in the form of one-dimensional (1D) nanorods for electrocatalytic carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation is not hitherto reported. Herein, a facile roadmap is presented for the rational design of Pt- and Pd-codoped CN (PtPd/CNs) nanorods via protonation of melamine in an ethylene glycol solution containing Pt and Pd precursors using NaNO3 and HCl and subsequent annealing. The protonation induces the polymerization of melamine to melon nanosheets that consequently roll up to CN nanorods. This tailored the prompt high mass production of uniform 1D CN nanorods (94 ± 2 nm) with a high surface area (155.2 m2 g−1) and they were atomically codoped with Pt and Pd (1.5 wt%) without a template and/or multiple complicated steps. The electrocatalytic CO oxidation activity of PtPd/CNs is 2.01 and 23.41 times greater than that of the commercial Pt/C catalyst and metal-free CNs, respectively, at room temperature. Meanwhile, the UV–vis light irradiation enhanced the CO oxidation activity of PtPd/CNs nanorods by 1.48 fold compared to that in the dark, emanated from the coupling between the drastic inbuilt catalytic merits of PtPd and the inimitable physicochemical properties of CNs. The presented study may pave the way for using CN-based materials in gas conversion reactions.