Signatures of consolidated superparamagnetic and spin-glass behavior in magnetite–silver core–shell nanoparticles
A detailed investigation of magnetization relaxation for silver-coated magnetite nanostructures with three different types of magnetic behavior in a single particle is presented. Magnetite nanoparticles of diameter ∼6.5 nm synthesized via single-phase emulsion were further coated with a silver shell of thickness ∼2 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles are found to be efficiently photoluminescent. The coating of silver generates a magnetically disordered spin layer at the interface of the magnetic core and the non-magnetic shell. This intermediate layer plays a significant role in the dynamical magnetic response of nanoparticles under an external magnetic field. We present detailed magnetic measurements such as field- and temperature-dependent dc magnetization with zero-field-cooled and field-cooled protocols, ac susceptibility and time decay of magnetization relaxation along with their analysis using various formalisms viz. Néel–Arrhenius, Vogel–Fulcher and power law models. The relaxation analysis suggests the consolidated presence of two characteristic relaxation times corresponding to the superparamagnetic and spin-glass behavior of silver-coated magnetite nanoparticles.