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Issue 47, 2018
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Highly self-diffused Sn doping in α-Fe2O3 nanorod photoanodes initiated from β-FeOOH nanorod/FTO by hydrogen treatment for solar water oxidation

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Abstract

In this study, we present an advanced strategy of low-temperature hydrogen annealing combined with high- temperature quenching in air for activating α-Fe2O3 nanorod photoanodes to boost the photoelectrochemical performance. We report that various low-temperature annealing conditions (340, 360, 380, and 400 °C) under hydrogen gas flow convert β-FeOOH into magnetite (Fe3O4) as well as introduce Sn4+ diffusion from FTO substrates to its surface. Furthermore, high-temperature quenching (800 °C) resulted in the phase change of magnetite (Fe3O4) into hematite (α-Fe2O3) and self Sn4+ doping into the hematite lattice. Thus, the hydrogen-assisted thermally activated hematite photoanode achieved a photocurrent density of 1.35 mA cm−2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE and 1.91 mA cm−2 at 1.4 V vs. RHE, which is 70% and 80% higher than that of directly quenched hematite at 800 °C. These combined two step strategies provide new insight into high Sn-self doping for α-Fe2O3 photoanodes and allow for further development of more efficient solar water oxidation systems.

Graphical abstract: Highly self-diffused Sn doping in α-Fe2O3 nanorod photoanodes initiated from β-FeOOH nanorod/FTO by hydrogen treatment for solar water oxidation

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Article information


Submitted
07 Sep 2018
Accepted
07 Nov 2018
First published
10 Nov 2018

Nanoscale, 2018,10, 22560-22571
Article type
Paper

Highly self-diffused Sn doping in α-Fe2O3 nanorod photoanodes initiated from β-FeOOH nanorod/FTO by hydrogen treatment for solar water oxidation

H. Ma, M. A. Mahadik, J. W. Park, M. Kumar, H. S. Chung, W. S. Chae, G. W. Kong, H. H. Lee, S. H. Choi and J. S. Jang, Nanoscale, 2018, 10, 22560
DOI: 10.1039/C8NR07277A

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