Vertically integrated visible and near-infrared metasurfaces enabling an ultra-broadband and highly angle-resolved anomalous reflection
An optical device with minimized dimensions, which is capable of efficiently resolving an ultra-broad spectrum into a wide splitting angle but incurring no spectrum overlap, is of importance in advancing the development of spectroscopy. Unfortunately, this challenging task cannot be easily addressed through conventional geometrical or diffractive optical elements. Herein, we propose and demonstrate vertically integrated visible and near-infrared metasurfaces which render an ultra-broadband and highly angle-resolved anomalous reflection. The proposed metasurface capitalizes on a supercell that comprises two vertically concatenated trapezoid-shaped aluminum antennae, which are paired with a metallic ground plane via a dielectric layer. Under normal incidence, reflected light within a spectral bandwidth of 1000 nm ranging from λ = 456 nm to 1456 nm is efficiently angle-resolved to a single diffraction order with no spectrum overlap via the anomalous reflection, exhibiting an average reflection efficiency over 70% and a substantial angular splitting of 58°. In light of a supercell pitch of 1500 nm, to the best of our knowledge, the micron-scale bandwidth is the largest ever reported. It is noted that the substantially wide bandwidth has been accomplished by taking advantage of spectral selective vertical coupling effects between antennae and ground plane. In the visible regime, the upper antenna primarily renders an anomalous reflection by cooperating with the lower antenna, which in turn cooperates with the ground plane and produces phase variations leading to an anomalous reflection in the near-infrared regime. Misalignments between the two antennae have been particularly inspected to not adversely affect the anomalous reflection, thus guaranteeing enhanced structural tolerance of the proposed metasurface.