Doping-stabilized two-dimensional black phosphorus
Two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorus (BP) has attracted broad interests but remains to be synthesized. One of the issues lies in its large number of 2D allotropes with highly degenerate energies, especially 2D blue phosphorus. Here, we show that both nitrogen and hole-carrier doping can lift the energy degeneracy and locate 2D BP in a deep global energy minimum, while arsenic doping favours the formation of 2D blue phosphorus, attributed to a delicate interplay between s–p overlapping and repulsion of lone pairs. Chemically inert substrates, e.g. graphene and hexagonal boron nitride, can be synergic with carrier doping to stabilize the BP further over other 2D allotropes, while frequently used metal substrates severely reduce the stability of 2D BP. These results not only offer new insight into the structural stability of 2D phosphorus but also suggest a promising pathway towards the chemical synthesis of 2D BP.
- This article is part of the themed collection: 2018 Nanoscale HOT Article Collection