The synergistic effect of non-stoichiometry and Sb-doping on air-stable α-CsPbI3 for efficient carbon-based perovskite solar cells†
α-CsPbI3 with the most suitable band gap for all-inorganic perovskite solar cell (PSC) application faces an issue of phase instability at low temperature in an air atmosphere. Herein, through stoichiometric investigation, α-CsPbI3 is successfully obtained with excess CsI at 110 °C in an air atmosphere. By doping α-CsPbI3 with Sb, phase stability is further enhanced and the film morphology is also improved. Carbon-based perovskite solar cells (C-PSCs) based on CsPb0.96Sb0.04I3 achieve a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.18%, a record value for α-CsPbI3-based PSCs without hole transport materials. Significantly, the CsPb0.96Sb0.04I3 C-PSCs retain 93% of the initial PCE after 37 days of storage in an air atmosphere. Therefore, the synergistic effect of non-stoichiometry and Sb-doping presents a promising strategy to design all-inorganic lead halide PSCs with high performance and stability.