Synergetic effects of Fe3+ doped spinel Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide for high surface electrode hybrid supercapacitors†
In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) based electrode materials were developed to achieve a hybrid supercapacitor (SC) function. Therefore, several synthesis methods were developed to prepare a cost effective and environmentally friendly rGO. Additionally, to maintain the high surface area, spinel lithium titanate (sLTO) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and deposited on the rGO surface to inhibit the restacking of the rGO layers on graphite. Furthermore, the adequate Fe-doping of sLTO increased the ionic conductivity and the intercalation capacity, which is necessary for a SC performance. The sLTO/rGO-composites were electrochemically analysed by chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to determine the stability during charge/discharge cycling and the capacity, respectively. To overcome the drawback of LTO's low conductivity values, its value has been drastically increased by Fe-doping. The results demonstrated the remarkable cycling performance of the Fe:LTO/rGO composite as well as a higher capacity compared to LTO/rGO and pure rGO-electrodes. The thermal stability, degradation and weight loss of the sLTO/rGO in the temperature range between 20 °C and 800 °C were investigated by thermogravimetry (TG)/DTA. As a conclusion, it can be stated that, increasing the ionic conductivity by Fe-doping drastically increases the hybrid capacity of the SC electrodes.
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