Photodynamic therapy in 3D cancer models and the utilisation of nanodelivery systems
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is the subject of considerable research in experimental cancer models mainly for the treatment of solid cancerous tumours. Recent studies on the use of nanoparticles as photosensitiser carriers have demonstrated improved PDT efficacy in experimental cancer therapy. Experiments typically employ conventional monolayer cell culture but there is increasing interest in testing PDT using three dimensional (3D) cancer models. 3D cancer models can better mimic in vivo models than 2D cultures by for example enabling cancer cell interactions with a surrounding extracellular matrix which should enable the treatment to be optimised prior to in vivo studies. The aim of this review is to discuss recent research using PDT in different types of 3D cancer models, from spheroids to nano-fibrous scaffolds, using a range of photosensitisers on their own or incorporated in nanoparticles and nanodelivery systems.