There is great potential in nanoscale science and technology, and construction of macrosized materials and systems possessing nanoscale structural features is a crucial factor in the everyday application of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Because nanoscale substances are often constructed through self-assembly of unit molecules and nanomaterials, control of the self-assembly process is required. In order to establish general guidelines for the fabrication of materials with nanoscale structural characteristics, i.e., nanoscaled materials, we introduce here examples of recent research in related fields categorised as: (i) self-assembled structures with forms generally determined by intrinsic interactions between molecules and/or unit nanomaterials, (ii) self-assemblies influenced by their surrounding media, especially interfacial environments, (iii) modulation of self-assembly by artificial operation or external stimuli. Examples are not limited to organic molecules, which are often regarded as the archetypal species in self-assembly chemistry, and many examples of inorganic assemblies and hybrid structures are included in this review.
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